TRACKING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION








Loral Defense & Chinese Ask Ron Brown Overrule Commerce, DoD and State For Advanced RADAR Export





RED CHINESE LASER DEVELOPMENT

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2. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE BEAM DIRECTOR'S GIMBAL CONFIGURATION IS BASED ON AN ELEVATION INSIDE AN AZIMUTH MOUNT WITH THE ELEVATION AXIS MOUNTED TO THE OUTSIDE YOKE. THE BEAM DIRECTOR IS OF THE CASSEGRAIN TYPE AND USES THE CLASSICAL CONFIGURATION OF A PARABOLOIDAL CONCAVE PRIMARY MIRROR AND A HYPERBOLOIDAL CONVEX SECONDARY MIRROR. THE BEAM FOLDING TECHNIQUE UTILIZED BY THIS DESIGN PERMITS A RELATIVELY COMPACT BEAM DIRECTOR SIZE WITH CORRESPONDING REDUCTIONS IN DEVICE WEIGHT AND JITTER, FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE A BEAM DIRECTOR'S POINTING AND TRACKING ACCURACY.


3. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE COUDE PATH CONSISTS ON SEVEN MIRRORS, PRECISION POINTING AND TRACKING IS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE SEVENTH MIRROR IN THIS CONFIGURATION, A FAST STEERING-MIRROR SITUATED BEHIND THE PRIMARY MIRROR. IN TRACKING MODE, THE FAST-STEERING MIRROR TRANSMITS A RELATIVELY LOW-POWERED LASER BEAM THROUGH A CONCENTRIC HOLE IN THE PRIMARY MIRROR TO THE SECONDARY MIRROR. THE BEAM IS THEN REFLECTED BACK TO THE PRIMARY MIRROR'S REFLECTIVE SURFACE AND OUT OF THE BEAMS DIRECTOR'S EXPANDING TELESCOPE TO THE TARGET.

4. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE PURPOSE OF THE FAST-STEERING MIRROR IS TO COMPENSATE FOR BEAM WANDER CAUSED BY DEVICE JITTER AND ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE. BEAM STABILIZATION PROVIDED BY THE FAST-STEERING MIRROR MAXIMIZES THE AMOUNT OF TRACKING BEAM ENERGY ON THE TARGET, RESULTING IN A CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN RETURN LASER SIGNAL. OPTIMIZATION OF THE LASER WEAPON'S POINTING AND TRACKING CAPABILITY IS THEN ACCOMPLISHED. A HIGH-POWER WEAPON BEAM CAN THEN BE TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE SAME COUDE PATH TO ENGAGE THE TARGET.

5. (UNCLASSIFIED) MOVEMENT OF THE FAST-STEERING MIRROR IS ACCOMPLISHED USING THREE PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS LOCATED AT 120 DEGREE INTERVALS AROUND THE MIRROR'S FACEPLATE, ADJUSTABLE PRESSURE SPRINGS ATTACHED TO THE MIRROR'S BACKPLATE AND BASE MAINTAIN CONTACT BETWEEN THE BACK OF THE MIRROR AND THE ACTUATORS, STATE OF TWO MILLIMETERS, MAXIMUM MIRROR POINTING ANGELS ARE PLUS OR MINUTES TWO MINUTES. ACTUATOR DEFORMATION IS IMPLEMENTED BY APPLICATION OF PLUS OR MINUS 700 VOLTS AT 200 HERTZ.

6. (UNCLASSIFIED) WHEN OPERATING IN A CLOSED OPTICAL LOOP, THE FAST STEERING MIRROR CAN PROVIDE A TRACKING ACCURACY OF 4 MICRORADIANS. WHEN OPERATING WITH AN ADAPTIVE OPTICS WAVEFRONT COMPENSATION DEVICE, WHICH CAN EFFECT ADDITIONAL BEAM ENERGY ON THE TARGET, TRACKING PRECISION CAN BE AS HIGH AS 1 MICRORADIAN. (FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS SUBJECT, SEE NAIC WEEKLY WIRE 43-98 DATED 23 OCT 98.)

7. (UNCLASSIFIED) BY COMPARISON, CHINA'S OWN "ROUGH ESTIMATE' FOR CONDUCTING AN AIR DEFENSE MISSION REQUIRES A POINTING AND TRACKING ACCURACY OF LESS THAN 10 MICRORADIANS. AN ANTISATELLITE LASER MISSION REQUIRES SUBMICRORADIAN POINTING AND TRACKING CAPABILITY. (FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS SUBJECT, SEE NAIC WEEKLY WIRE 43-98 DATED 23 OCT 98.)

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3. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE CHINESE DESIGN FOR CORRECTING WAVEFRONT DISTORTIONS USES AN ADAPTIVE OPTIC SYSTEM CONSISTING OF A CONTINUOUS FACEPLATE DEFORMABLE MIRROR MADE OF SILICON DIOXIDE (SIO2). THE DEFORMATION MIRROR HAS A DIAMETER OF 120 MILLIMETERS (MM) AND A THICKNESS OF 2 MM. SIXTY-ONE PIEZOELECTRIC LEAD MAGNESIUM NIOBATE (PZT) ACTUATORS PROVIDE THE WAVEFRONT COMPENSATION WHICH CAN DEFORM THE SIO2 MIRROR PLUS OR MINUS 3 MICROMETERS. PZT ACTUATOR DEFORMATION IS IMPLEMENTED BY THE APPLICATION OF PLUS OR MINUS 350 VOLTS. ACTUATOR SEPARATION IS 16.4 MM AND RESPONSE FREQUENCY RANGE IS ABOUT 2 KILOHERTZ. TO COMBAT TEMPERATURE EXTREMES AND SUBSEQUENT MIRROR DEFORMATION EFFECTS, THE ADAPTIVE OPTIC MIRROR IS SITUATED WITHIN A THERMOSTATIC ENVIRONMENT.

4. (UNCLASSIFIED) IMAGE WANDERING IS CONTROLLED BY A TWO-DIMENSIONAL FAST-STEERING, PIEZOELECTRIC MIRROR 140 MM IN DIAMETER. THE MAXIMUM TILTING ANGLE IS PLUS OR MINUS TWO ARC MINUTES. ACTUATOR DEFORMATION IS IMPLEMENTED BY THE APPLICATION OF PLUS OR MINUS 700 VOLTS AT FREQUENCIES AROUND 200 HERTZ.

5. (UNCLASSIFIED) REAL-TIME WAVEFRONT SENSING IS CONDUCTED USING A SHACK-HARTMANN WAVEFRONT SENSOR. THE WAVEFRONT SENSOR CONSISTS OF AN 8 BY 8 ARRAY OF SUBAPERTURES. THE SENSORS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH SUBAPERTURE ARE RESPONSIVE TO 0.818 MICROMETER RADIATION. WAVEFRONT PROCESSOR OPERATES AT 300 MEGAHERTZ.

6. (UNCLASSIFIED) OPERATING IN A CLOSED LOOP, THE FAST STEERING AND DEFORMABLE MIRRORS IMPROVE THE TRACKING OF BALLOON-BORNE TARGETS POSITIONED AT AN OBLIQUE ANGLE AT AN UNKNOWN DISTANCE FROM THE LASER SOURCE. TESTS INDICATE THE SYSTEM'S TRACKING PRECISION CAN BE AS HIGH AS 1 MICRORADIAN WHILE FAR-FIELD ENERGY ON TARGET CAN BE "INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY."

7. (UNCLASSIFIED) IN COMPARISON, CHINA'S "ROUGH ESTIMATES" FOR CONDUCTING A LASER ANTISATELLITE MISSION CALL FOR SUBMICRORADIAN POINTING AND TRACKING CAPABILITY WITH LASER INTENSITIES ON THE TARGET OF 1000 WATTS PER SQUARE CENTIMETER. (FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS SUBJECT, SEE NAIC WEEKLY WIRE 43-98 DATED 23 OCT 98.)

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4. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE TABLE SHOWS A REQUIREMENT FOR A 4 METER (M) DIAMETER BEAM DIRECTOR MIRROR FOR AN ANTISATELLITE MISSION. THIS MIRROR PRODUCTION REQUIREMENT CAN PROBABLY BE MET BY THE NANJING ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENT RESEARCH CENTER WHICH IS CURRENTLY PRODUCING A 4.3 M DIAMETER MIRROR FOR THE BEIJING OBSERVATORY. THIS MIRROR IS SCHEDULED TO BE INSTALLED IN THE YEAR 2000.

5. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE TABLE SHOWS CHINA'S AIR DEFENSE LASER BEACON AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR A CAPABILITY TO INDUCE RAYLEIGH BACKSCATTER FROM THE TARGET AND FOR ITS ASSOCIATED ADAPTIVE MIRROR TO HAVE "A FEW ACTUATORS", RESPECTIVELY, CHINA HAS ALREADY MET THE TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF PRODUCING LASER BEACON-INDUCED RAYLEIGH BACKSCATTER SIGNALS AND HAS THE CAPABILITY TO PRODUCE ADAPTIVE OPTICS HAVING 69 ACTUATORS.

1. (UNCLASSIFIED) CITING THE SPEED OF LIGHT OPERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY LASER WEAPONS, LI HUI, DIRECTOR OF THE BEIJING INSTITUTE OF REMOTE SENSING EQUIPMENT, A DEVELOPER OF OPTICAL PRECISION AND PHOTOELECTRONIC GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES, HAS CITED LASER TECHNOLOGY AS THE ONLY EFFECTIVE MEANS TO COUNTER CRUISE MISSILES.

2. (UNCLASSIFIED) LI HUI HAS ENCOURAGED THE ACCELERATION OF LASER WEAPON DEVELOPMENT. AS A MEANS TO ACCELERATE THIS INCLUSION, LI HAS STRESSED THAT THE ANTI-CRUISE MISSILE LASER WEAPON UTILIZES CHINAS MOST MATURE HIGH-ENERGY LASER TECHNOLOGY, THE DEUTERIUM-FLUORIDE CHEMICAL LASER.

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6. (UNCLASSIFIED) LI HUI'S STATEMENT ADVOCATING GROUND-BASED LASER WEAPONS FOR USE AGAINST MISSILES IS NOT THE FIRST BY A CHINESE WEAPONS DEVELOPER. THE 1028TH RESEARCH INSTITUTE (RI) OF THE MINISTRY OF INFORMATION INDUSTRY, A MAJOR CHINESE DEVELOPER OF INTEGRATED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS, HAS ANALYZED THE USE OF LASERS IN FUTURE WARFARE. SUCH USES INCLUDE ACTIVE JAMMING OF ELECTRO-OPTICS, BLINDING COMBATANTS AND DAMAGING SENSORS, CAUSING LASER-GUIDED WEAPONS TO DEVIATE FROM THEIR TRUE TARGETS, AND TARGET DESTRUCTION.

7. (UNCLASSIFIED) THE 1028 RI'S ANALYSIS CONCLUDED WITH THE STATEMENT, "THE APPEARANCE OF LASER WEAPONS WILL HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON MODERN WARFARE. ON TODAY'S ELECTRONIC BATTLEFIELD, IT IS NATURAL FOR DEFENSIVE SYSTEMS TO USE LOW-ENERGY LASER WEAPONS TO DAMAGE ENEMY ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT. WHEN HIGH-ENERGY LASERS THAT CAN DIRECTLY DESTROY TANKS, PLANES AND SHIPS DEVELOP AND MATURE, THEY W]LL BE FORMIDABLE OFFENSIVE WEAPONS." (FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS SUBJECT, SEE NAIC WEEKLY WIRE 25-98 DATED 19 JUN 98).


TABLE I

CHINA'S "ROUGH ESTIMATES" FOR 
LASER WEAPON SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS
(UNCLASSIFIED)

                           LASER       AIR DEFENSE  ANTI-
                           SENSOR      LASER        SATELLITE
                           BLINDING    WEAPON       WEAPON
================================================================
OPERATIONAL RANGE          0.5-10      1-500        500-1000
(KILOMETERS)

TARGET SPEED               LESS THAN   LESS THAN    8
(KILOMETERS/SECOND)          1           1

TARGET HARD KILL           10-10XX2    10XX4        10XX3
IRRADIANCE
(WATTS/CENTIMETER)

LASER BRIGHTNESS           10XX11      2 X 10XX14-  2 X 10XX17-
(JOULES/STERADIAN)         10XX14      2 X 10XX17   10XX19

DWELL TIME                 1-10        1-10         1-10
(SECONDS)

AVERAGE POWER              30-3 X      10XX4-5 X    10XX6 - 
ON TARGET (WATTS)          10XX4       10XX6        10XX7

BEAM QUALITY               LOW         APPROX.      2
REQUIREMENTS                           2 - 3       

LASER WAVELENGTH           1 - 10      1 - 10       APPROX.
(MICROMETERS)                                       1

OUTPUT BEAM                LESS THAN   1 - 1.5      4
DIAMETER (METERS)          1 METER     

POINTING & TRACKING        LESS THAN   LESS THAN    LESS THAN
REQUIREMENTS               10          10           1
(MICRORADIANS)

ADAPTIVE OPTICS            NOT         A FEW        MANY
REQUIREMENTS               REQUIRED    ACTUATORS    ACTUATORS

BEACON                     NOT         REFLECTED    MULTIPLE
REQUIREMENTS               REQUIRED    TARGET LIGHT BEACONS
                                       AND RAYLEIGH
                                       BEACONS


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