Newly declassified documents from the Clinton administration reveal that a civil airline modernization program for China was actually a program to train and equip the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
The new documents, forced from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), are official USAF, Commerce and FAA reports on Chinese military contacts.
According to the documents, PLAAF officers toured Edwards Air Force Base in May 1999 for military purposes. The PLAAF officers were given training on USAF combat missions, including "bombing and strafing" and "combat readiness."
In 1994, then Secretary of Defense William Perry began a "Joint Defense" conversion project with Chinese General Ding Henggao. General Ding was the commander of the Chinese Army Unit "COSTIND" (Commission on Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense). One part of the U.S./China project was to modernize the communist civil "Air Traffic Control" (ATC) system.
The documented meetings shows that the Clinton administration attempted to conceal the military background of the Chinese representatives from everyone, including FAA officials. In 1993, a Chinese military delegation visited America. Yet, according the FAA, which sponsored the visit, the entire delegation was civilian.
The 1993 FAA delegation list includes a "Mr. Kui Fulin" who toured FAA Headquarters in Washington, Andrews AFB in Maryland, and Boeing aircraft Corporation in Washington state. "Mr. Kui Fulin" was actually General Kui Fulin, Chinese Army Deputy Chief of the General Staff.
The 1993 FAA list states "Mr. Li Yongtai" was the Commissioner of the Air Traffic Control Commission of China. According to hand written notes taken by the FAA, Mr. Li Yongtai was actually "Lt. General" Li Yongtai of the Chinese Air Force.
In fact, FAA officials who attending the meeting wrote "military" next to the names of seven members of the 1993 "China Air Traffic Control" delegation in an apparent effort to track the Chinese Army officers. Another example shows that a "Mr. Li Zhongli" was part of a Chinese civilian delegation visit in 1997 to San Francisco that was sponsored by Stanford University. "Mr. Li Zhongli" was actually Colonel Li Zhongli of the PLAAF.
In 1997, the PLAAF was given a demonstration in Sunnyvale California by Ashtech, a maker of GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) receivers. The briefing for the PLAAF and Chinese Navy officers states, "Ashtech produces a receiver that uses both the U.S. GPS signals and the Russian GLONASS signals resulting in significantly greater availability and integrity."
According to a 1997 Rand Corp. report on the Chinese Defense Industry, "More accurate GPS systems would enhance the PLA's ability to carry out attacks against Taiwan's military and industrial facilities, potentially reducing the ability of the Taiwanese military to defend itself against PRC coercive diplomacy. The use of GPS to enhance the accuracy of long-range Chinese cruise missiles, coupled with long-range sensors, would raise serious concerns for the U.S. Seventh Fleet in the Pacific, and possibly circumscribe their ability to provide an effective deterrent in a crisis over Taiwan."
In 1999, the Clinton administration offered the PLAAF the latest in advanced "mobile radars", command and control systems, GPS navigation, and "Surveillance Avionics" such as "Air to Air", "Air to Ground" and "surface Area Movement" surveillance radars.
According to a U.S. Air Force May 1999 report, the PLAAF was given details on USAF "Special Airspace" areas inside America used for military training, research and national security zones. The details include Edwards Air Force base and a mapped tour of the facility. Edwards AFB is a test center for USAF, and NASA research aircraft, including the space shuttle.
The newly released materials also include training manuals from the USAF 334th Training Squadron in both english and Chinese. The documents show Clinton administration officials proposed to train PLAAF military air controllers.
The USAF documents show PLAAF officers were given a "simulated" training mission. The training included a "two ship formation of F-16s from Luke AFB, Arizona" on a "bombing" and overflight mission in a training area, code-named "Baghdad", northwest of Prescott Arizona. The simulated exercise also included "in-flight refueling" with a tanker aircraft under control of a USAF AWACs plane.
The USAF "AWACS" (airborne warning and control system) is a flying radar plane manned by Air Force radar controllers. The Boeing E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft provided cover and control for thousands of allied aircraft during the Gulf war and again during the operation in Kosovo. AWACs aircraft are expensive and only a few Boeing E-3 Sentry aircraft have been exported to Saudi Arabia and NATO.
The PLAAF is not currently equipped with an airborne radar control plane nor an airborne refueling tanker aircraft. The Chinese Air Force did recently purchase thirty Sukhoi twin seat SU-27 variant super-sonic bombers, which are equipped with a retractable air refueling probe, giving them virtually unlimited range. The Sukhoi bombers are nuclear-strike capable.
The Chinese Air Force has also paid Israel to supply the Phalcon airborne radar system. However, the PLAAF radar plane deal from Israel was delayed when it was revealed the aircraft was actually a former U.S. made Boeing 707 airliner refitted with the airborne electronics, violating U.S. export laws. The Israelis are reported to be working with Russian airframe maker Antonov to fit the Phalcon radar system into a large transport for the PLAAF sale.
One 1995 meeting document from the Commerce Dept. also includes several names familiar to China-Gate and found in the Cox Report. In 1995, FAA, Commerce and USAF officials met with officers from the Chinese Army Unit COSTIND (Commission for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense). COSTIND was represented by an all star cast including Lt. General Huai Guomo, Maj. General Deng Yousheng, and Major General Wang Shouyun.
In 1999, Softwar obtained the full bio, in Chinese and English, of COSTIND Lt. General Huai after winning a Freedom of Information lawsuit against the Commerce Dept. The official White House spin is that COSTIND was not a Chinese military unit but a "civilian" agency. According to a November, 1997 report, written for the Commerce Dept. by "think-tank" company SAIC, COSTIND was neither civilian nor engaged in purely commercial activities:
"COSTIND supervises virtually all of China's military research, development and production. It is a military organization, staffed largely by active duty officers... COSTIND also coordinates certain activities with the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), which produces, stores, and controls all fissile material for civilian as well as military applications. COSTIND approves licenses for the use of nuclear materials for military purposes."
The Commerce Dept. claimed in August 1999 that it had complied with the orders of Federal Judge Robert Payne and turned over all documents on the Chinese Army unit COSTIND.
However, the newly released Commerce Dept. documents dealing with COSTIND were found by the FAA, not the Commerce Dept. The documents were turned over by the FAA in response to a FOIA request for Chinese military contacts. None of the newly released Commerce documents were given to Judge Payne in response to his Court order. Thus, the new documents show the Commerce Dept. did not fully comply with Federal Judge Payne's order.
The Chinese Army unit COSTIND and the Chinese Air Force control "civilian" assets inside China. According to the Clinton administration, the PLAAF controls all air traffic in China, civil and military. PLAAF officers and enlisted personnel man all air control (ATC) facilities in red China. The ATC system and the PLAAF controllers are directly connected to the Chinese integrated air defense network of surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and fighter-interceptors.
The PLAAF also owns several businesses. According to a 1994 report by the U.S. Army defense attache in Beijing, "the major enterprise subordinate to the PLA Air Force is the China Lantian (Blue Sky) Industrial Corp. Also affiliated to Lantian is the Tian Ma (Sky Horse) Brand of vehicles and vehicle repair parts and facilities. China United Airlines (CUA) is a commercial entity of the PLA Air Force."
According to the 1997 Rand report on the Chinese Defense Industry, "for those who oppose any subsidization of the PLA, there is thus ample evidence that profits from PLA-affiliated enterprises directly benefit the main-line forces of the Chinese military."
MORE TO COME...
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION 800 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20591 SEP 14 1999 Mr. Charles R. Smith SOFTWAR 7707 Whirlaway Dr. Midlothian, VA 23112 Dear Mr. Smith Freedom of Information Act Request (FOIA)# 99-7733 This is in response to your July 4, 1999 Freedom of Information Act request regarding Air Traffic Control Systems in reference to the Chinese Armed Forces from 1993 to present. Please note we have no information in our filesabout the February 15, 1995 meeting held at the Deptartment of Commerce which you cited as "Example 2." Although Beth Keck is listed as attending this meeting for FAA, she departed the Office of International Aviation (AIA) in 1996 and left no files about this meeting. The document you cited as "Example 1" was not generated by the FAA. You will find some of the individuals listed in your "Example 1" mentioned in various of the documents were are providing you now. The enclosures, totaling 577 pages, are copies of the documents the AIA possesses in its files which are responsive to your request. Included are meeting schedules, records of discussions, cables, memoranda, briefing materials and miscellaneous documents relating to FAA's activities concerning ATC systems and the Chinese military. Included in our files is a copy of a document originating from the General Accounting Office (GAO). We have forwarded this document to the GAO's Office of Policy for review and possible release. The Policy Office will respond to you directly. Should you need to contact the GAO regarding this request, you may write to: General Accounting Office Office of Policy 441 G Street N.W. Washington, D.C. 20548 The cost for processing this request is $47.70 (577 copies at $.10 per page, first 100 pages free). Since you are classified as media, you are only being charged for the duplication of the dcuments. Please submit a check or money order made payable to "DOT/FAA" to: Office of International Aviation Attention: Ms. Pam McCree Federal Aviation Administration (AIA-2) 800 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20591 Sincerely, John W. Bauerlein Director of International Aviation Enclosure
COUNTRY: CHINA DATE OF VISIT: MAY 9-20, 1999 NAME & ORGANIZATION Mr. Zhang Yaokuan, Deputy Head of Bureau, State Air Traffic Control Commission (SATCC) Mr. Mao Shunping, Deputy Director General Air Traffic Management Bureau (ATMB), General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (CAAC) Sr. Col. Li Zhongli, Deputy Director, Aeronautical Control Department, People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Command Sr. Col. Wang Changzheng, Director of Navigation Division, PLA Naval Air Force Mr. Xu Chaoqian, Deputy Director, Air Traffic Control (ATC) Division, ATMB, CAAC Ms. Zhong Yahui, Senior Engineer, Department of Information Product Management, Ministry of Information Industry *Mr. Xu Jianhua, Assistant Consultant, SATCC Maj. Wang Shouxing, Official, Aeronautical Control Department, PLAAF Command *Ms. Wang Rui, Interpreter, ATMB, CAAC * Members of delegation known to speak English Accompanying Delegation on Travel Outside Washington, DC: Mr. John Hancock, Deputy Director, Office of International Aviation, AIA-2, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Mr. Tim Halpin, Manager, Air Traffic Services International Staff, AAT-30, FAA Lt. Col. Jim Robilotta, Director, Intemational Civil Aviation Policy, Department of Defense (DoD) Policy Board on Federal Aviation Ms. Jean Herz, China Desk Officer, Asia-Pacific Division, AIA-400, FAA Mr. Francis C.G. Chao, Interpreter, FAA SUNDAY, MAY 9, 1999 Transportation provided by MITRE Ms. Mary Page Thompson Phone: (703) 883-6799 Accommodations provided by Raytheon Ms. Blanche Necessary (assistance with registration at hotel) Home Phone: (202) 546-3265; Beeper: (800) 908-5744 Mr. Rocky Gmeiner Home Phone: (301) 855-2702; Office Phone: (703) 284-4308 Mr. Krister Fast; Ms. Joanna Li 3:17p.m. Arrive in Washington, DC at Dulles (NW 1404) via Detroit C.C. Hsin, MITRE, meets delegation, transfers group to its HQ for briefing and dinner TUESDAY, MAY 18, 1999 Transportation and accommodations provided by Lockheed Martin 8:00 a.m.- 11:00 a.m. Visit Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), Lancaster, CA Coordinator: Lt. Col. Jim Robilotta Director, International Civil Aviation Policy Department of Defense Policy Board on Federal Aviation Phone: (703) 614-8047 Welcoming remarks Official TBD Briefing on FAA High Desert Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) and Edwards AFB daily planning, integration and control of civilian and military operations Mr. Bill Shelton Deputy Director, 412 Operational Support Squadron (OSS), Edwards AFB Phone: (661) 277-9831 Tour of High Desert TRACON Mr. Brent Shively Air Traffic Manager, High Desert TRACON Phone: (661 ) 265-8345 Mr. Phillip Stang Manager, Edwards Systems Support Center Phone: (661) 258-4436 Accompanying Delegation on Tour of High Desert TRACON: Lockheed Martin: Christopher Francis Raytheon: Terry Wamer Accompanying Delegation on Visit to Edwards AFB: Lt. Col. Bill Frank Air Force Representative to FAA Western-Pacific Regional Office Phone: (310) 725-3902 11:00 p.m.- 12:30 p.m. Fast food lunch hosted by Lockheed Martin (Depart Edwards AFB via South Gate)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20230 March 10, 1995 Dear Symposium Participants: On behalf of the U.S. Department of Commerce, it is an honor to welcome aviation representatives from many Asian nations to the "1995 Asia-Pacific Aviation Symposium", March 20-23, 1995. As Co-Chair of the Aviation and Airport Infrastructure Subgroup of the U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, I am pleased to extend a special welcome to the Chinese delgation. I look forward to having an opportunity for further discussion on aviation issues of mutual interest with all of the delegates. As the future of global air transportation infrastructure evolves and ever-increasing demands are placed on current transportation infrastructure, the U.S. aerospace community continues to be interested in exploring new opportunities and developing new partnerships with Asian business and government entities. The "1995 Asia-Pacific Aviation Symposium" presents an excellent occasion for the exchange of ideas and further business discussions. Best wishes for a productive and successful conference. Sincerely, Ellis R. Mottur Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology and Aerospace Industries
PROTOCAL ORDER FOR CHINESE DELEGATION CAAC = General Administration of Civil Aviation COSTIND = State Commission for Science, Technology & Industry for National Defense PLAAF = People's Liberation Army Air Force 1. Mr. Bao Peide Vice Minister, CAAC 2. Lt. Gen. Huai Guomo Vice Minister, COSTIND** (WHY Gu-o-mo) 3. Maj. Gen. Deng Yousheng Director of Foreign Affairs Division, (Dung Yo Shung) COSTIND** 4. Maj. Gen. Wang Shouyun Deputy Secretary General, COSTIND** (Wong Show-yun) 5. Mr. Qu Yongxiu Deputy Director, National Air Traffic (Chu Yong She-you) Control Committee** 6. Mr. Cheng Dedi State Planning Commission (chung Duh-dee) 7. Mr. Wang Encheng Depty Director, ATC Department, CAAC** 8. Li Zhenchauan Deputy Director General, ATC Department, (lee Zhun Chu-on) National Air Traffic Control Committee 9. Liu Minghai Deputy Director, National Air Traffic (Leo Ming-high) Control Committee 10. Col. Li Zhongli Deputy Director, ATC Department, PLAAF** 11. Mr. Xu Cunxin Director General, Department of Capital Construction and Airport Management, CAAC 12. Mr. Xu Rixiao Deputy Director General, Northwest Regional Administration, CAAC 13. Mr. Luo Chongyuo Deputy Director General, Northwest Regional Administration, CAAC 14. Mr. Wang Yixuan Deputy Director General, Northwest Regional Administration, CAAC 15. Mr. Hou Yimming Director, Department of Special Technology, (Ho Yeen-ming) Ministry of Electronics Industry (MEI)** 16. Mr. Liu Xianlin Director Airborne Equipment Bureau, (Lee-o She-on Leen) Aviation Industries of China (AVIC)** 17. Mr. Fang Youxin General Manger, Beijing Capitol Airport 18. Mr. Xhang Chunlin General Manager, Guanzhou Baiyun Airport 19. Mr. Kong Dong General Manager, Shenzen Airport 20. Lt. Col. Wang Feng Central Office, Special Assistant to Lt. Gen. Huai, COSTIND 21. Mr. Xie Xin Deputy Director, Department of International Affairs, CAAC (english) 22. Mr. Wang Zhiqing Official, Planning Department, CAAC 23. Mr. Zhou Yong Mr. Bao Peide's Secretary, CAAC 24. Major Su Dejing Staff Officer, ATC Department, PLAAF** (Shoe Duh-jean) 25. Major Feng Hui Staff Officer, Foreign Affairs Bureau, (Fung Lohay) COSTIND** 26. Mr. Liu Luhong Planning Commsion, COSTIND 27. Ms. Liang Nan Official, Department of International Affairs, CAAC (english) 28. Lt. Col. Han Guo Qing Representative for Military Technology Cooperation, Chinese Embassy, Washington DC
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